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Educators' Guide for Pedagogy and Assessment

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Unit: 1. Human Development and Health Care

Health and Social Care

Learning Outcome: 1. I know the organisation of the human body and the interrelationship of major body systems 

1 I can describe the key organs in the human body and their core function.
Organisation: Cells; tissues; organs; systems
Key organs in the body: e.g. skin, heart, lungs, brain, eye, ear, stomach, pancreas, liver, kidneys, bladder, ovaries, testes, uterus.
2 I can outline the main systems in the human body with their main function.
Systems: e.g.
Circulatory system: heart; blood; blood vessels.
Respiratory system: nose; trachea; bronchi; lungs; alveoli; diaphragm.
Nervous system: brain; spinal cord; nerves.
Renal system: kidneys; ureters; bladder; urethra.
Digestive system: mouth; oesophagus; stomach; small and large intestines; rectum.
Endocrine system: pituitary; thyroid; adrenal; pancreas; hormones.
Musculoskeletal system: bones; joints; ligaments; muscles
Major body systems and their functions: e.g.

  • Circulatory system: transport of oxygen, nutrients, waste products and hormones; protection against infection; maintenance of a constant body temperature;

  • Respiratory system: maintenance of oxygen supply; excretion of carbon dioxide and water vapour;

  • Nervous system: detection, processing of and response to changes in the internal or external body environment;

  • Digestive system: ingestion, digestion, absorption and elimination of food;

  • Renal system: filtering of blood; salt balance; fluid balance;

  • Endocrine system: secretion of hormones to maintain balance in the body;

  • Musculoskeletal system: provides support; movement; protection of vital organs.

1  I can discuss how  organ systems interact with each other.
Relationships between major body systems: e.g.

  • Circulatory and Respiratory systems: transport of inspired oxygen and expired carbon dioxide via the blood to and from all parts of the body;

  • Musculoskeletal and nervous systems: to enable physical movement;

  • Digestive and endocrine systems: secretion of insulin or glucagon to maintain a constant blood glucose level;

Learning Outcome: 2. I can carry out routine measurements and observations of the human body. 

3  I can state what a normal range of measurement of pulse, temperature, breathing rate and blood pressure may be.
Normal readings of pulse, temperature, breathing rate and blood pressure: e.g. babies, adults, older people.
4   I can list the common signs and symptoms that might be present when pulse, temperature, blood pressure and breathing rate are outside the acceptable range.
Signs and Symptoms: observations as appropriate to body systems e.g. skin colour and texture, temperature, breathing rhythm, dizziness, fainting, thirst, coughing and gurgling.
2  I can explain the most common reasons why pulse, temperature, blood pressure readings and breathing rate might be outside that range.
Common reasons: e.g. age, diet, weight, family history, shock, injury, alcohol, drugs, medication, being active/fit, infections, diseases.
1  I can measure and record a person's pulse, temperature, breathing rate and blood pressure.
Health, safety and accuracy considerations when taking measurements: e.g. accuracy of equipment, duplicate readings, safety and wellbeing of individual during measurements, infection control.

Learning Outcome: 3. I know  the key aspects of development and individual needs  related to different life stages.

5 I can outline the key aspects of human growth and development  throughout the life stages.
Key aspects of development:

  • Physical: e.g. growth, changes at puberty, menopause, ageing;

  • Intellectual: e.g. rapid learning in early years, language, moral development, problem solving;

  • Emotional: e.g. attachment/bonding, independence, self-confidence;

  • Social: e.g. cooperation, teamwork, relationships. 

Lifestages: infancy (0 - 3 yrs); childhood (4 - 10 yrs); adolescence (11 - 18 yrs); adulthood (19 - 65 yrs ); old age (65  years onwards)

 6 I can identify the physical, intellectual, emotional and social needs throughout the life stages.
Physical: e.g. Balanced diet, exercise, warmth, safety;
Intellectual: e.g. being able to communicate, lifelong learning, problem solving, keeping the brain active and stimulated;
Emotional: e.g. love, affection, relationships, security;
Social: e.g. family, friends, hobbies, community.

 3  I can explain key aspects of  human growth and development of one particular service user at a particular life stage.
 2  Demonstrate how the physical needs of one particular service user can be met.
Physical needs of a baby or a person with physical impairment;
Feeding; moving and handling; nappy changing.

Learning Outcome: 4. I can understand factors that influence the health and wellbeing of individuals.

 7  I can outline the different life factors which influence the health and wellbeing of individuals.

  • Socio-economic factors: e.g. social class, culture, employment, education, housing;

  • Physical factors: e.g. genetic inheritance, disability, age, gender; 

  • Lifestyle factors: e.g. diet, exercise, smoking / substance misuse, working pattern/stress, social and community networks;

  • Health Factors: e.g. infection, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, mental health, presence of chronic disorder.

8 I can identify the life events which influence the health and well- being of individuals.
Life Events: e.g. birth of a sibling/son/daughter, going to nursery/school, employment/ redundancy, marriage/divorce, serious injury, ageing/retirement, bereavement.
 4 I can explain factors which affect the everyday needs of individuals.
 5    I can explain the positive and negative influences which life events have on the health and well-being of individuals.

Learning Outcome: 5. I can develop a plan to meet the health and wellbeing needs of an individual.

 9 I can outline the components of a healthy lifestyle.
Components: physical fitness; a balanced diet; intellectual stimulation; emotional and social wellbeing.
10 I can describe the targets that one has to keep in mind when developing a plan to meet the speific needs of an individual.
Targets: SMART
S - Specific
M - Measurable
A - Achievable
R - Realistic
T - Time-related
 3  I can carry out an  assessment to make a plan to meet an individual's specific needs.

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