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Educators' Guide for Pedagogy and Assessment

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Unit: 1. Construction Processes ​


Learning Outcome: 1. I can communicate the construction operatations for a residential building.

I can identify the construction stages for a residential building.

Construction stages: initiation; planning; realisation; closure.
1 I can discuss the construction operations required for the realization of a residential building.
Operations in construction: 
mobilisation; ground works; substructure; superstructure; masonry works; services work; finishing works; completion.
2 I can list people involved in the realisation of a residential building. 
People involved: e.g. project manager, site manager, architect, civil engineer, structural engineer, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer surveyor, excavator, general contractor, mason/bricklayer, formwork carpenter, electrician, plumber, waterproofer, plasterer, roofer, tiler, painter, carpenter. 
2 I can describe PPE and safe working practices required in construction sites.
PPE in construction:-Eye and face protection: Safety glasses and/or face shields;
-Foot protection: Safety shoes; boots with slip-resistant and puncture-resistant soles;
-Hand protection: Heavy-duty rubber gloves;
-Head protection: Hard hat;
-Hearing protection: Earplugs and/or earmuffs;
-Protective clothing: High-visibility vest.
3 I can outline the importance of sequencing and planning construction operations for a residential building.
Sequencing and planning:-appropriate and logical order of operations on site;
-production problems caused by inappropriate planning or sequencing of work;
-effect of production problems;
-unforeseen events on productivity and cost: materials shortages; bad weather; accidents on site; vandalism.

Learning Outcome: 2. I can assess the thermal properties of construction materials.

I can identify the effects of temperature changes on construction materials in terms of basic scientific principles.
Principles: e.g. change in state, expansion and contraction, sensible heat, latent heat, cooling effect of evaporation, coefficient of expansion.
5 I can describe methods and techniques used to accommodate thermal expansion and contraction on concrete roofs and external brick walls.
Methods and techniques:-Concrete: Expansion joints
-Brick: Vertical joints.
1 I can carry out tests to identify thermal properties of two construction materials chosen from the examples specified in Unit Content.
Identification of thermal properties: 
-Follow precisely a given method to demonstrate the expansion and contraction, and to test thermal properties of given materials;
-Use the apparatus accurately;
-Report in a clear manner the results obtained;
-Interpret the results;
-Ensure that the appropriate PPE was worn and health and safety issues were minimised.

Learning Outcome: 3. I can produce a brick or blockwork task in a safe way.

6 I can describe the types and use of brick and blockwork material available locally.
Types of brick and blockwork:-Standard blocks: e.g. 2.5”, 4”, 6”, 7”, 9”, 12”;
-Non-standard blocks: e.g. chimney blocks, coping stones, reinforced concrete beams, reinforced concrete slabs, lintels type 6” 7” 9”, roofing concrete hollow blocks type 6” 8” 10”. 
3 I can explain the sequence of operations required to construct a brick wall above the damp proof course (DPC).
Sequence:-Prepare the foundations and clean them with a brush;
-Lay out bricks at both ends of the wall and fix a levelled masonry line as a guideline;
-Prepare a cement mortar mix or a lime mortar mix in a bucket and pour water in it until mix has a smooth, creamy texture that is wet but not too loose;
-Lay a 1-2cm mortar bed along the masonry line;
-Starting at one end, lay the first brick and tap slightly to “bed in”;
-‘Butter up’ one end of the next brick with mortar and abut it to the first.
-Repeat using masonry line as a guide;

-At the point where pillars will start, place a brick side-on to the end of the wall. Each consecutive course of pillar bricks must be laid in the opposite direction and one course higher than the wall;
-If a fraction of the brick is required, mark it and cut it using power tools;
-Move the masonry line upwards to the next course and lay a 1-2cm mortar bed along the masonry line;
-For a stretcher bond, the end of each brick should be over the centre of the one beneath;
-To finish the beds, use the rounded edge of a brick jointer to scrape mortar into the joints. Start with the bed joints  and follow with the end joints;
-Give the finished wall a gentle brush over and clean up any mortar that has fallen onto the floor before it dries.
2 I can construct a straight brick or block wall, with 4 layers of bricks, two square pillars at the ends of the wall, and a layer of high-load membrane acting as DPC in a safe way so that to minimise health, safety and welfare risks.
Construction of brick wall:-Select the appropriate tools, equipment and material to perform task;
-Construct 4 layers of bricks in a levelled and straight way;
-Cut bricks to the required size using power tools;
-Bed joints and end joints to be less than 10mm;
-Ensure that the appropriate PPE was worn and health and safety issues were minimised.
I can describe types of mortar used to perform brick and blockwork tasks.
Types of mortar:-cement mortar;
-lime mortar: hydraulic lime mortar; hydrated lime mortar;
-mix of cement mortar;
-mix of lime mortar.
4 I can describe the use of specific hand tools used for brick and blockwork tasks.
Specific hand tools:-Measuring tools;
-Knives and cutters;
-Masonry saw;
-Construction pencil;
-Mashing hammer (steel mallet);
-Masonry line;
-Steel square;

Learning Outcome: 4. I can plaster internal and external walls with appropriate mixes.

9 I can list the tools that are required to perform plastering tasks.
Tools required: e.g.-Hawk,
-Plastering trowel,
-Bucket/Corner trowel,
-Pointing trowel,
-Angle trowel,
-Scarifier trowel,
-Sponge float,
-Plastic float,
-Jointing Knife,
-Spirit level,
-Hammer and chisel,
-Spot board.
5 I can explain the sequence of operations required to perform plastering tasks on an internal brick wall.
Sequence:-Check that all tools are clean;
-Remove any dust and loose debris from the wall using a stiff brush;
-Apply a bonding agent onto the wall and allow it to dry;
-When mixing plaster, use clean cold water and always add the plaster to the water, not the other way round. -Mix the plaster in a bucket using a paddle until the plaster has a creamy consistency with no lumps;
-Place mixed plaster on a pre-dampened spot board;
-Load hawk with plaster from the spot with the plastering trowel and plaster the wall from the bottom left-hand corner upwards;
-Push plaster from the hawk onto the wall with the plastering trowel and keep the float at a narrow angle to the wall, spreading firmly upwards and flattening the float out towards the end of each sweep;
-Level off the plastered wall from the bottom upwards in a left-to-right motion;
-As previous layer goes stiff, apply second coat of plaster;
-Use a wet brush to clean up edges and remove any plaster that has spread onto adjacent surfaces;
-After about 20 minutes, run a clean float over the wall to remove any marks and flatten it to a smooth finish;
-Polish off the final layer of plaster using little clean water and the plastering trowel until a silky smooth finish is achieved.
3 I can demonstrate basic plastering techniques by plastering an internal brick wall having an area of between 6 and 9 meters squared in a safe way so that to minimise health, safety and welfare risks.
Plastering an internal brick wall:-Select the appropriate tools, equipment and material to perform a plastering task;
-Prepare and clean the surfaces that are to be plastered;
-Apply plastering techniques correctly to plaster a wall;
-Ensure that finished work has a silky smooth finish;
-Ensure that the appropriate PPE was worn and health and safety issues were minimised.
10 I can identify different types of mixes used for plastering tasks.
Mixes used for plastering tasks: e.g.-Traditional plaster (background cement-based high-quality plaster for interior and exterior use),
-Lime plaster (breathable background plaster based on natural hydraulic lime for internal and external use),
-Dehumidifying plaster (cement based microporous background plaster),
-Thermal plaster (cement based plaster including EPS beads for external thermal insulation),
-Silicate plaster (special finishing breathable plaster),
Siloxane plaster (breathable and waterproof plaster).

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