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Educators' Guide for Pedagogy and Assessment

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Learning Area: Languages

Maltese > LEVEL 8

Subject Focus: Speech

1] I can use correctly the rhythms of speech, the volume of my voice and the precision of the articulation of words with the situation I am speaking in by distinguishing how to apply them in different aspects of speech, for example in face-to-face conversations with one person or a group, on the telephone and other social media, both in formal and informal registers.
2] I can do requests and ask questions to acquire information that I need by adapting the level of formality in my speech depending on the situation, the context and the audience, such as when I ask for information about my rights as a consumer, and so on.
3] I can speak clearly about facts, give detailed and precise explanations, instructions, stories and descriptions by being able to match the content and level of detail needed depending on the situation and context, for example when I give instructions for something to be done for the first time or to a new person.
4] I can present information that I have collected and my ideas in a sequence and in connection to each other by including all the details and strengthening with evidence and research, where needed.
5] I can answer questions about a range of subjects that necessitate detail or a lot of information, among other things after conducting the necessary research, so that the interlocutor can recognise how much knowledge I have of the subject.
6] I can speak in a fluent way in different registers of the Maltese language used in Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, Social Studies, History, Religion, Information Technology, Home Economics, Art, Physical Education, Technological Design, Personal Development Studies, Drama, Expressive Arts and vocational subjects.
7] I can speak about a number of current affairs that I have read or heard in newspapers or in the daily news.  
8] I can expose from different angles and positions different themes of general interest such as entertainment, travel, migration, youth, workplace culture, the environment, politics, and explain what impact they leave on me as an individual as well as on the society around me.
9] I can follow and take part in a discussion about a range of direct subjects where the speakers may have different aims from each other, as is the case with meetings of local councils, school meetings, community meetings and others.
10] I can answer other people's opinions that do not agree with me in discussions about a sensitive subject/s without making them feel threatened or overwhelmed by me.
11] I respect the rules of the discussion where everyone is given the chance to speak and explain their thoughts without any fear or obstructions.
12] When I'm leading a discussion, I can use expressions and verbal/non-verbal gestures to invite other people to participate in the discussion when it's their turn. 
13] I can use the correct phrases to make an intervention in the discussion or argument; give my opinion at the right moment and depending on the context, and tie it in with what is being discussed.
14] I can discuss with my friends and with adults the continuous change that our culture is going through when compared with our culture in the past, so that while appreciating what was good in the past, I understand better that culture is a living thing and changes continuously, and that we need to update ourselves with it.
15] I can discuss and analyse with my friends a number of written texts, literary or non-literary, modern or old, and recognise how a number of elements from foreign languages have infiltrated and become part of different aspects of the Maltese language that we use today.

Subject Focus: Listening in everyday life, use of grammar and literature

1] I can grasp the main points, complex idiomatic expressions and other details when someone is talking to me or to others, such as when I hear a dialogue, conversation, interview, autobiographical story or formal discussion
2] I can distinguish and understand different tones, voices and gestures of a wide variety of speeches, such as ironic, sarcastic and hyperbolic, and I can react to them both verbally and non-verbally, such as with gestures.
3] I can recognise the genre of a text I'm listening to, even if communicated through technological means, such as a report, article, information piece and so on by distinguishing between facts and opinions, and what's being said and in what way.
4] I can follow a set of instructions and explanations in the logic of the order they were given in, while  giving special attention to the use of particular registers and I can recognise the difference between similar verbs like baking (aħmi) and cooking (sajjar), mixing (ħawwad) and kneading (agħġen), cooling (berred), making colder (kessaħ) and freezing (iffriża).
5] I can listen to, follow and understand the details of notices and warnings that I may not be familiar with; I can identify who is issuing them as well as who they are intended for, such as notices to sailors and fishermen.

6] I can understand directions to places I am or I am not familiar with, use my auditory memory and give the directions that I hear in my own words.
7] I can listen to, follow and understand a series of reports, discussions and news that I already know or that I have never heard, while I organise them in my own head, interpret them and evaluate them so that I can give facts and details about them. 
8] I can follow, understand, draw and memorise important details from an advert while I interpret and assess what I have heard in my own words.
9] I can follow and grasp the main points in a discussion that might have different aims and might not always have a linear sequence but contain deviations and re-assertions that alternate, such as a discussion where I share my ideas with others, design a task, solve a problem, clarify any points over which there's a lack of agreement or divergent opinions, and so on.
10] I can listen to and understand texts and speeches in different registers of the Maltese language in sectors like Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, Social Studies, History, Religion, Information Technology, Home Economics, Art, Physical Education, Technological Design, Personal Development Studies, Drama, Expressive Arts and vocational subjects.
11] I can listen attentively to and understand factual pieces, answer direct, inferential and open questions about them, both orally and in writing on what I have just heard, evaluate them and form my own opinion about them. 

Subject Focus: Reading 

1] While reading, I can keep focussed on the text, tie one part with another to understand the global meaning of the text, and consider not only what is printed or shown on screen, but also what's hidden between the lines.
2] I recognise that writings can have different styles and structures depending on what the author intended to achieve and the audiences that are being targeted, and I can evaluate them and assess whether they've reached the aim they were written for and how they affect the readers. 
3] I can read and understand descriptive, light argumentative, factual and academic/study texts and from them I can draw the main information and understand the specific terms, even with the help of teachers or dictionaries.
4] I understand well what I read, ponder it from different perspectives, form an opinion about it, express and discuss it, in other words, recognise whether a piece of writing is objective or subjective, recognise the explicit and implicit messages that emerge from the text, put myself in the author's/protagonist/s' shoes and imagine how I would behave or express myself, I recognise and understand different tones, for example the literal, ironic, sarcastic and so on.
5] While reading, I use titles, sub-titles, tables of content, prefaces, chapters, references, quotations, indexes, bibliographies, 
images/pictures/illustrations and so on, to help me understand what I'm reading and/or get the information that I need to get.
6] From what I read I can draw the main points, the secondary points, the points that are not that important, the hidden messages and the details that only appear in the images and/or the illustrations, by following the line of thought or the plotline/s or the thematic development of the text that I'm reading. 
7] I read in different ways according to the reasons why I am reading, for example, I skim through a text when I just want to get its gist or a general impression; I can scan to identify specific information; or read in-depth to understand every word and not miss any detail or idea and so on.
8] I understand that authors use different registers of a language in their writing to express their thoughts and feelings, and therefore from the language that they use, I recognise the aim of the text I am reading, for example, if it's a text written to entertain, to inform, to describe, if it's a narrative, argumentative, didactic, fictional or factual piece of writing, and so on.
9] I can predict the meaning of difficult words I don't know the meaning of from the sense of the sentences/paragraph/s and/or from the context, by, among other things comparing one word with another, for example, verbs from derived forms with the main form; dividing composite words into different parts, separating prefixes and/or suffixes from main words and so on.
10] While reading, I can use my knowledge of grammatical, morphological and syntactic aspects to better understand what I am reading, predict what will happen or how the argument or explanation will develop.
11] I can read to myself or in front of an audience, and I can use punctuation marks correctly, not only to read well but also to understand and be understood better.
12] I can properly use dictionaries, thesauri and glossaries to search for words I don't know the meaning of, or how they're spelled, pronounced and read, in other words, by searching in alphabetical order, the consonantal root or morphemic stem, the matrix word or key words, etymology, and so on; and by learning the meaning of main abbreviations and considering other information that's provided in books of this sort.
13] I can read and understand texts in different registers of the Maltese language used in Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, Social Studies, History, Religion, Information Technology, Home Economics, Art, Physical Education, Technological Design, Personal Development Studies, Drama, Expressive Arts and vocational subjects.

Subject Focus: Writing 

1] I can find good models of writings in different genres to expand my vocabulary, expression, idiomatic use, style and progression of my writings depending on my aims and the audiences I have in mind.
2] I can read my writings and revise them by editing, deleting repetitions, adding where needed, clarifying some points and refining them. 
3] In my writing I use whole, composite and complex sentences and I tie a paragraph with another in a sequence when I'm writing about complex themes.
4] I can write captions with essential and concise information for photos of artistic works like sculptures and paintings in classical, modern and abstract art.
5] I can write adverts of between 50 and 70 words together with slogans related to them.
6] I can write informal emails of between 50 and 70 words.
7] I can write instructions on how to work and use different equipment like tools, computers, televisions, mobile phones and so on.
8] I can write reports of between 50 and 70 words about stories and events that happened.
9] I can write fictional stories, for example those with a historical setting, thrillers, maritime and so on, of between 200 and 250 words that feature characters, stories, places and settings.
10] I can write stories and poems by using human voices, creatures, objects and so on, that are animated/inanimate depending on the different contexts where I show sympathy, empathy, anger, regret, appreciation and so on.
11] I can write texts and dialogues in different registers of the Maltese language used in Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, Social Studies, History, Religion, Information Technology, Home Economics, Art, Physical Education, Technological Design, Personal Development Studies, Drama, Expressive Arts and vocational subjects.
12] I can write biographies of between 250 and 300 words about Maltese and foreign authors, artists, singers and actors that include an appreciation of their artistic and cultural contribution.
13] I can write argumentative pieces of between 250 and 300 words based on pre-researched information and give my personal views and positions.
14] I can write a speech about a current theme of between 250 and 300 words. 
15] I make sure I write or type my pieces in Maltese that is free of mistakes in syntax, morphology and grammar, spelling and punctuation, and I present them in a clear and neat way. 
16] I use modern technological means to present my writings in Maltese fonts, for example when I write an email, present a project and so on.

Subject Focus:  Literature

1] I can make a distinction and understand tones, voices, rhythms and gestures (for example happy, sad, nostalgic, mysterious, ironic, sarcastic, hyperbolic and so on) of a range of literary texts and I appreciate the effect they have in the context of the text and on me.
2] I recognise and understand how literary texts use models of sound like alliteration, meter (regular and/or free), onomatopoeia, rhyme (couplets/alternate/internal/free verse) and tone, and I appreciate the effect they have in the context and on me. 
3] I recognise and understand how literary texts use figurative language like metaphors, personification and similes, and rhetorical models like repetition, anaphora, apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, rhetoric questions, sarcasm; and I appreciate the effect they have in the context of the text and on me.
4] I recognise and understand how literary texts use structural aspects like asyndeton, polysyndeton, enjambment, stanzas and a specific register, and I appreciate the effect they have in the context of the text and on me.
5] I understand and recognise that poems might have different structures to reach specific purposes like the form of a sonnet, sapphic verse, ballads, elegies, haikus, poetic prose, free verse, traditional poetry, and so on.
6] I understand and recognise that certain works of prose (short stories, novels and plays) might have different structures to reach their specific aims for the progression of the main plot, the secondary storylines, the main characters and other characters and so on.
7] I can speak about Maltese books that I've read, such as novels, short stories, plays and funny anecdotes, and I can share my views about them from the point of view of narrative, characterisation, plot progression, historical and environmental 
setting, and the values and messages they convey, so that I can entice other people to read them.
8] I can talk about the relationship I perceive in a literary text between the personal life of the author, the 
setting and the time they lived in.
9] I can compare and analyse, orally or in writing, my own experiences with those mentioned in the literary texts. 

10] I can talk and/or write about the differences, similarities and the relevant things that I can see between a literary work and another.
11] When I write or talk about literary texts, I use references and quotations from them to reinforce the reflections, analyses, opinions and/or judgements that I pass on them.
12] I can talk and/or write about a literary text by using the appropriate terminology related to the form, the structure and the content, and how this tool is used by the poet/author to achieve the desired effects.
13] I can analyse orally and/or in writing the development of the characters, the story, the audience, the motive, the 
setting and the theme of the literary texts and give my personal interpretation of them.
14] I can take notes that are necessary and important on which to build my own analysis of a literary text, both orally and in writing.
15] I can recognise and appreciate that in literature I will come across different opinions about universal concepts like love, the environment, identity and so on.

16] I can follow and understand Maltese songs in different styles and genres, understand their figurative language and interpret their effect on me while I draw from them quotations that strike me.

Subject Focus: The Language

The consonants:
1] I know how assimilation happens between 2 strong consonants at the end of a word, e.gIl-ħobż mixwi. / Radd ħajr. / Sadd il-bir. / Ħadd ma ġie.
2] I know that there a number of consonants that are pronounced as a specific sound even though they are written in a different way, for example zz pronounced as /żż/ like in 'gazzetta'; ts/ds/dds/ pronounced as /zz/ like in 'għadsa'; tx/ttx/dx/ddx/dtx pronounced as /iċ/ like in 'ħattx'; sx/ssx/żx/żżx/ pronounced as /xx/ as in 'ħażżx'.
3] I know when liquid consonants can stand without a vowel, such as when they have 'j/w' directly before or after them, for example in 'bejnna', 'rawlna', 'ittrejnjajt'.
The vowels:
4] I know when the vowel belongs to the word (etymological), it's euphonic (tal-leħen) or servile (morphological) in words like 'importanti', 'assassin', 'l-iskola', 'nilagħbu', 'pajjiżi', 'ħaddiema', and so on.
5] I know when I have to use the euphonic vowel in front of foreign nouns that start with a sequence of 2 consonants one after the other (double or not), such as 'l-ipparkjar', 'l-ivvjaġġar', 'l-istampar', and so on. 
The article:
6] I know that I have to write the article in front of certain names and sometimes this is assimilated to the first consonant, such as in names like Il-Gudja and not GudjaĦaż-Żebbuġ and not Ħaż Żebbuġ, and so on.
7] I know that since in Maltese there is no indefinite article, we can still create a sense of indefiniteness by using 'wieħed/waħda', for example 'Kien hemm wieħed raġel...'
8] I know that the article in front of words that start with 'għ/h' can also be used with the euphonic vowel 'i', such as in 'l-/il-għasfur'; 'il-/l- hena'.
The particles:
9] I can correctly write and use the short version of lil/lill- such as in: 'Tlabt 'l Alla' and 'Tlabt 'il Pawlu'; 'Rajna 'l-għalliema'; 'Kellimt 'il-Papa'.
10] I know when the prepositions 'bi', 'xi', 'ficannot be shortened in front of a word that starts with 2 consonants, such as in words like 'bi dwiefer twal'; 'bi mqass jaqta'', 'xi rrid', 'sejjer xi mkien', 'fi rziezet' and so on.
11] I know when the preposition cannot be shortened because it means something else, such as in 'f'xi iġmla', 'xi isqra', 'xi ilsna', 'xi isqof' and so on.
12] When writing sentences, I can use well subordinate conjunctions such as 'iżda', 'imma', 'lanqas', 'madankollu'; and the conditional conjunctions such as 'kieku', 'jekk', 'li ma'.
13] When writing sentences, I can use well the adverbs that show quantity, negation and questions such as 'bosta', 'qatt', 'kif'.
The verb:
14] I can use foreign verbs (those derived from Romance languages and English and did not integrate into the semitic ones) in the perfect tense and person in speech and in writing of sentences such as in 'Marc ipparkja l-karozza ħażin'; 'It-tim ittrenja ħafna'; 'L-għalliem issejvja kollox fuq diska kompatta'.
15] I can use foreign verbs (those derived from Romance languages and English and did not integrate into the semitic ones) in the imperfect tense and person in speech and in writing of sentences such as in 'Marc jipparkja l-karozza ħażin'; 'It-tim jittrenja ħafna'; 'L-għalliem jissejvja kollox fuq diska kompatta'.
16] I can use foreign verbs (those derived from Romance languages and English and did not integrate into the semitic ones) in the future tense and person in speech and in writing of sentences such as in 'Marc se jipparkja l-karozza ħażin'; 'It-tim ser jittrenja ħafna'; 'L-għalliem ser jissejvja kollox fuq diska kompatta'.
The negative:
17] I can out verbs in the negative by using the particles 'la', 'qatt ma', 'xejn bħal', 'La tisraqx', 'Ma kienet tajba xejn', 'Qatt mhu se tarani aktar'. 
18] I can shorten the participle of the negative 'ma' to 'm'' when it features in front of a vowel, an '' or 'h' such as in 'ma hemmx/m'hemmx'; 'm'afdax/ma afdax'.
The morphemic stem:
19] I know that instead of the consonantal root, some verbs use the morphemic stem together with a number of prefixes and suffixes to create new words and meanings, such as 'nedukaw', 'edukajna', 'edukat', 'edukatur', 'edukattiv', 'maledukat' and so on derived from the root 'eduk'.
The forms of the semitic verb:
20] I know how verbs are created in the 2nd, 5th, 3rd and 6th form, and I appreciate the different meanings that can be derived such as 'kiser idu', 'kisser it-tazza', 'tkisser bix-xogħol', 'il-ħġieġa tkissret'; 'id-dar tbierket', 'il-qassis bierek l-iskola'.
The composed and auxiliary verbs:
21] I can use the word 'għad' to mean a far away future such as in 'Għad jasal żmien li...'
22] I can create and use the auxiliary verbs 'kien', 'qiegħed' and 'kellu' both by themselves as well as when they are used in front of other verbs such as 'kien jiekol', 'qiegħda tisma'', 'kellu jiltaqa''.
The nouns:
23] I know how to derive diminutive or augmentative nouns from other nouns, whether the words have semitic or Romance origins such as 'ġnien-ġnejna'; 'tifel-tfajjel'; 'bank-banketta', 'bankun'; 'furketta-furkettun'; 'tromba-trumbetta' and 'trumbun'.
24] I know that some verbs are considered singular when they refer to groupings such as 'ġemgħa', 'folla nies', 'klassi tfal', 'mazz karti', 'serbut nemel', 'armata suldati'.
25] I know that certain foreign nouns can have different forms of plural (both 'miksur' and 'sħiħ') such as 'bnadar/bandieri'; 'toroq/triqat', 'bolli/bolol'.
The possessive in the construct state (l-istat kostrutt):
26] I can use the possessive by making use of phrases in the construct state between 2 nouns or more such as in 'bint is-sultan'; 'f'daħlet Bieb il-Belt'.
The pronouns:
27] I know how to  write correctly the attached pronouns (pronomi mehmużin) when they are attached to verbs (both in the affirmative and the negative) and that they have both the direct and the indirect object attached to them, especially when I use pronouns in the third person (u/hu/ha) in the middle of a composite word such as 'għaddih', 'm'għaddihiex'; 'għaddihulna/għaddihielna'.
28] I know how to write the participle 'kontra' when used with pronominal suffixes such as 'kontrija' and 'kontrih'.
The adjective:
29] I know how to use the adjective in the absolute superlative form, for words with semitic as well as foreign origins such as 'aħmar nar'; 'interessantissimu' and 'importantissimu'.
30] I can recognise that there are quite a number of prefixes that I can use to build new words such as 'maledukat' and 'maledukazzjoni' from 'edukat', 'arċisqof' from 'isqof' and 'bużnannu' from 'nannu'.
31] I know when I should attach the prefix to the word and when it should remain separate such as in 'antiklerikali' and 'anti-Taljan'.
32] I know I can add a foreign consonant in the middle of the consonantal root to create a new form and meaning of the verb such as 'kiser-kisser' and 'waqa' -waqqa''.
33] I know that I can add a number of different suffixes to nouns, verbs and adjectives (consonants and/or vowels at the end of the word) to build words with new meanings such as suffixes for the 'plural sħiħ', the pronominal suffixes and the perfect, among others, for example 'ommijiet', 'qalbek' and 'ġabet'.
34] I can change an active sentence into a passive one by using the forms of the verb as well as the past participle, such as 'Il-qattus qabad il-ġurdien' - 'Il-ġurdien inqabad/ġie maqbud mill-qattus'.

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