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Educators' Guide for Pedagogy and Assessment

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Learning Area: Science and Technology

Physical Science > LEVEL 9

Learning Area Outcome: ​I can use the inquiry process, skills of science and creative processes of technology to address the needs of society and design appropriate solutions to issues which are relevant to me as a citizen.

Subject Focus: Energy, Forces and motion

1] I can write an article on how Galileo discovered that all objects fall with the same acceleration.  
2] I can describe how all objects require an unblanced force to accelerate or decelerate.
3] I can use the equation: F=ma, to explain Newton's Second Law.
4] I can express momentum as the product of mass and velocity.  
5] I can explain Newton's Second Law in terms of the rate of change of how the momentum of an object is proportional to the force applied to the object.
6] I can investigate that the time of impact affects the force of impact, using Newton's Second Law and I can apply it to practical situations.
7] Using: F=ma and Accelaration=change in velocity/change in time, I can derive Newton's Second Law in terms of momentum.
8] I can work out calculations using the law of conservation of linear momentum.
9] I can distinguish between the mass and weight of an object.
10] I can use the relationship: W=mg, to solve mathematical problems concerning two variables.

11] I can describe how a force works when moving an object.
12] I can use the relationship: W=Fs, to solve problems concerning two variables.
13] I can describe how the work done by a force on a moving object, can increase the object's velocity, thus increasing the object's kinetic energy, Ek.
14] I can use the equation: Ek=1/2mv2, to solve problems related to kinetic energy.
15] I can rearrange the equation: Ek=1/2mv2, to make m or v the subject of the formula.  
16] I can explain that the work done by a force on an object increases the height of the object above the ground and the object's gravitational potential energy Ep increases.
17] I can use the expression Ep=mgh to solve problems about GPE.
18] I can describe qualitatively how KE and GPE of a system can interchange and that the total energy is the sum of the KE and GPE.
19] I can give an example of energy interchange within a system to demonstrate conservation of energy.  
20] I can use an idealised computer simulation 
of a pendulum to show the relationship between the period and the length of a pendulum.
21] I can use the equations for KE and GPE together, for calculations relating to falling objects.
22] I can plan an inquiry into the energy transfers in falling objects by measurements using data loggers.

23] I can investigate how the surface area of a parachute affects the speed at which an object falls to the ground.
24] I can explain that the fastest speed a skydiver can reach is called the terminal velocity and that at this velocity the forces acting on the skydiver are balanced.
25] I can use the term terminal velocity, to describe this as the fastest speed cars can travel at when the forces acting on the car are balanced and there is no resultant force on the car.
26] I can distinguish between braking distance and thinking distance.
27] I can use ideas about stopping distance to understand how crash investigators are able to collect data about the speeds of cars involved in an accidents.
28] I can use equations for linear motion, to determine instantaneous velocities, acceleration, distances and time of travel, for objects that have a constant acceleration.
29] I can investigate how a helical spring extends or compresses when subjected to an increasing force.
30] I can explain how the suspension of a car works and model this using different springs 
31] I can describe Hooke's Law in relation to the force exerted on a material and the extension of the material.
32] I can identify different types of material e.g. brittle, ductile, polymeric from stress strain graphs.

33] I can describe a moment as the turning effect of a force.
34] I can use the relationship: moment=force x perpendicular distance from pivot, for calculations concerning two variables.
35] I can use the Principle of Moments to find an unknown weight or distance in an everyday life application involving systems in equilibrium, up to two pivots only.  

36] I can investigate how pressure exerted on a surface is determined by the weight of the body and the area of surface it covers.  
37] I can use the relationship: Pressure=Force/Area, to calculate problems concerning two variables.
38] I can discuss how the pressure on an object underwater and objects in different fluids change, depending on the density of the fluid and the depth of the object beneath the surface of a fluid.
39] I can investigate and discuss how hydraulic machines rely on pressure to be able to lift heavy loads.
40] I can use the relevant equation to calculate the pressure on a submarine at various depths in the Mediteranean Sea. I can investigate how submarines are designed to ensure they maintain structural integrity whilst in deep water.
41] I can elicit from relevant textbooks and the internet how mercury barometers can be used to measure atmospheric pressure.
42] I can discuss how, when a balloon is squeezed, the volume of the balloon decreases but the pressure inside the balloon increases. 
43] I can research Boyle's Law which states: the pressure of a gas x the volume of a gas is a constant, as long as the temperature remains constant.
44] I can use a manometer to demonstrate Boyle's Law.
45] I can use Boyle's Law to solve problems concerning two variables.
46] I can identify Boyle's Law from a graph and describe the relationship between volume and pressure as being inversely proportional.
47] I can explain how an aerosol canister contains liquid that turns to vapour due to the change in temperature when the fluid is released from the canister and how the vapour now has a larger volume.
48] I can use Charles' Law to explain how, at constant pressure, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas in Kelvin.

Learning Area Outcome: I am able to use evidence in formulating investigations to arrive at solutions for relevent scientific or technological issues and use my knowledge to understand issues within society and make evidence-based decisions.

Subject Focus: Electricity and electromagnetism

1] I can demonstrate the relationship between voltage and resistance in a simple series circuit with one fixed resistor and a variable resistor.
2] I can explain that changing the resistance of a variable resistor changes the potential difference across the variable resistor.
3] I can use a thermistor to design and build a simple circuit that detects changes in temperature.
4] I can use a LDR to design a simple circuit to detect changes in light intensity.
5] I can explain how the potential difference across the power supply in a series circuit is equal to the sum of potential differences across the components.
6] I can explain how the current in a series circuit is the same at all points in the circuit.
7] I can explain how the potential difference accross the power supply in a parallel circuit, is the same as the potential difference across each component connected in parallel with the power supply.
8] I can explain how the current in a parallel circuit is divided between the branches in the circuit.
9] I can explain that the total current in a parallel circuit is equal to the sum of the current in the branches.
10] I can describe how the current is larger in the branch with the least resistance in a parallel circuit.

11] I can compare the properties of permanent magnets and electromagnets.
12] I can investigate the shapes of magnetic fields around different types of magnets and electromagnets.

13] I can investigate how to change the strength of the magnetic field around an electromagnet and describe its practical use.
14] I can demonstrate that a current carrying conductor will experience a force in the presence of a magnetic field
15] I can use Fleming's Left Hand Rule for a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field. 
16] I can build a model DC motor using a power supply, a coil of wire, a split ring commutator and a permanent magnet.
17] I can explain that when a magnet is moved in relation to a coil of wire, a voltage is induced across the ends of the coil.
18] I can research how power stations, wind turbines and hydroelectric power stations generate electricity by using turbines that rotate coils in permanent magnetic fields.
19] I can describe how transformers can only be used with alternating current.
20] I can describe why transformers are required to adjust voltages to reduce energy losses, when electrical energy is distributed from power stations to consumers.
21] I can research and explain how electromagnetic induction is used in mobile phone chargers to charge phones without the need for cables.
22] I can solve calculation problems involving the number of primary and secondary turns and the primary and secondary voltages of tranformers using the expression: V1/V2=N1/N2, where V stands for Voltage and N stands for number of turns.
23] I can induce an emf across the ends of a coil of wire using a magnet. I can use 
Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction and explain how the emf induced in a coil depends on the rate of change of the magnetic flux and the number of turns of the coil.
24] I can research how DC motors are used in computing drives, vehicles and domestic appliances.

Learning Area Outcome: I can use my knowledge and understanding of science and technology in considering issues, including ethical ones relevant to myself as a citizen, such as environmental sustainability and health.

Subject Focus: Radiation for communication and health

1] I can explain in simple terms the absorption and ionising properties of alpha, beta and gamma radiation and discuss the health hazards to humans.
2] I can design an experiment to investigate the claims of sun cream and sun block manufacturers in the ability of sun creams to block out UV radiation.
3] I can compare SPF ratings to investigate manufacturer's claims about the extent to which they block out UV rays.
4] I can discuss how the ozone layer in the Earth protects us from harmful UV rays from the sun.
5] I can research using the internet and textbooks, how medical workers are protected from the harmful effects of X-Rays and Gamma rays by the use of absorbers.
6] I can discuss how over exposure to ionising radiation can lead to cancer.
7]  I can describe how some radioactive materials may be used in medicine for treatment of cancer e.g. gamma rays and as tracers to help radiographers see inside a patient's body.
8] I can explain how nuclear radiation is emitted from the nucleus of an atom and that this is a random and spontaneous process.
9] I can describe the properties of the three types of radiation: alpha, beta and gamma.
10] I can relate the properties of the three types of radiation to practical applications. 
11] I can explain what happens to the atomic number and mass number of a nucleus during radioactive decay and use this to identify the new isotopes formed.
12] I can describe how to detect radiation using speacialised equipment such as a Geiger Muller tube.
13] I can interpret measurement of activity from different radioactive sources as recorded from appropriate equipment e.g. a Geiger Muller tube and counter.
14] I can use the nuclear model of the atom to describe the location of protons, neutrons and electrons.
15] I can discuss the properties of the sub-atomic particles in an atom in relation to charge and mass.
16] I can interpret graphs of radioactive decay to determine the half-life and calculate the fraction of the original isotope left after a period of time.
17] I can design a model of half-life using coins, dice, Skittles to demonstrate exponential decay.
18] I can research the process of nuclear fission and its uses in nuclear power stations, including the hazards involved.
19] I can list and discuss the advantages and problems of using nuclear power to generate electricity.
20] I can describe the uses of some radioactive isotopes e.g. Carbon 14 to date historical artefacts.
21] I can discuss how it is possible for radiation workers to minimise exposure to nuclear radiation by wearing protective clothing and using badges that are designed to measure exposure.
22] I can research the experiments of Rutherford on the scattering of alpha particles by a thin gold foil.

Learning Area Outcome: I know how to learn, update my knowledge and apply my understanding so I will be a lifelong learner, building my knowledge of issues in science and technology to make evidence-based decisions.

Subject Focus: Earth and the Universe

1] I can research and write an essay about popular, previously held views about the model of our solar system and how this has changed over time e.g. from Ptolomy and his geocentric model, to Copernicus and his heliocentric model.
2] I can discuss how Galileo's investigations and findings against the geocentric model put him in conflict with the beliefs of the Catholic Church at the time and use this as an example of how scientists can use their investigations and findings to challenge commonly held views.
3] I can build a simple telescope using a metre ruler and two convex lenses and make simple measurements of magnification using the equation: magnification=focal length of objective lens/focal length of eyepiece lens.
4] I can measure the focal length of convex lenses and give practical uses for this type of lens.
5] I can use ray diagrams to prove the law of reflection.
6] I can use a prism and other transparent objects to demonstrate refraction.
7] I can calculate the refractive index of transparent media using the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum, to the speed of light in a medium.
8] I can describe how refraction in a dense medium affects the speed and wavelength of the light source but not its frequency. 
9] I can demonstrate and describe how waves can be diffracted when travelling through gaps, similar in magnitude, to the wavelength of the wave.
10] I can demonstrate and describe how spectra may be formed by using prisms.
11] I can research about the red shift and use the information gathered, to be able to explain the theory of the expansion of the universe.
12] I can explain how red shift is evidence for the Big Bang Theory in the creation of the universe.
13] I can use the internet to research how astronomers obtain data on the universe, using different methods. 
14] I can discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using orbiting telescopes as opposed to terrestrial telescopes.
15] I can research the life cycle of a star to present the different possible outcomes for different sized stars.
16] I can research how developments in Physics in the 20th Century, led scientists to describe how nuclear fusion of hydrogen is the process that sustains a star through the main stage of its life cycle.
17] I can correctly use the terms protostar, red giant and white dwarf when describing the lifecycle of our Sun.
18] I can present in graphical form the eventual fate of different stars based on their size, including why our Sun will become a black dwarf and why Supergiant stars e.g. Antares will go Supernova.
19] I can investigate how astronomers measure astronomical distances in light years, to determine the size of galaxies and the distances between them.
20] I can discuss how our Sun is one of billions of stars in the Milky Way, which is one of billions of galaxies in the universe.
21] I can explain that when we look at the stars at night we are looking back in time due to the finite speed of light and the distances between stars, galaxies and the earth.

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