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Educators' Guide for Pedagogy and Assessment

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Learning Area: Science and Technology

Materials Science > LEVEL 8

Learning Area Outcome: I can translate the reactions into balanced chemical equations.

Subject Focus: Materials from the Earth - The Atmosphere                                                                                                                   Learn about the natural constituents of the atmosphere as well as polluting chemicals. Use the properties of these substances to construct groupings and understand patterns of physical and chemical behaviour.

1] I can identify the gases that make up the air naturally and those that may be added by humans e.g. nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water vapour, noble gases, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides.
2] I can describe the properties of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and noble gases as well as relate these properties to uses of the gases.
3] I can use the periodic table to describe and/or model atoms showing differences between atoms e.g. subatomic particles - protons, neutrons and electrons; atomic number, isotopes and relative atomic mass.
4] I can determine the electron configuration of a given atom using the periodic table e.g. of the first 20 elements.
5] I can explain where to find the gaseous elements in the periodic table.
6] I can use the online periodic table to find information about elements and identify the symbols of common elements in the periodic table e.g. first 20 elements and bromine, iodine, lead, copper, iron, zinc and silver.
7] I can explain the difference between elements and compounds e.g. using gases in air as examples.
8] I can explain how covalent bonds are formed and represent them using dot-and-cross diagrams e.g. hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, methane, water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen chloride.
9] I can describe the properties of simple covalent substances e.g. melting and boiling points, non-conduction of electricity.
10] I can use the properties of simple covalent substances to explain how they behave e.g. fractional distillation of liquid air – no details of industrial process are required.
11] I can explain the fact that gases have different relative densities and equal volumes of gases, when measured under the same conditions, have different masses e.g. gases have different diffusion rates depending on their atomic or molecular mass.
12] I can investigate how gases may be safely prepared in the laboratory and evaluate different collection methods e.g.carbon dioxide by reacting acid with carbonates: oxygen from hydrogen peroxide; and hydrogen by reacting an acid with an appropriate metal.
13] I can identify water and carbon monoxide as examples of neutral oxides.
14] I can explain how the amount of certain gases and particulates in the environment may increase due to combustion reactions e.g. carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and soot.
15] I can explain how some gases react with water to produce acidic solutions e.g. carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide.
16] I can interpret data to identify and explain environmental effects of some gases and particulates in the atmosphere.
17] I can discuss methods for reducing emission of pollutants into the atmosphere e.g. use of renewable sources of energy, catalytic converters.
18] I can translate the reactions described in this theme into balanced chemical equations.

Learning Area Outcome: I can translate the reactions into balanced chemical equations.

Subject Focus: Materials from the Earth - The Sea                                                                                                                         Learn about the importance of the sea which occupies more than 70% of the earth’s surface. Water is a universal solvent and the sea is a rich source of minerals and many other useful chemicals. Water is an important medium for many chemical reactions.

1] I can research and present ideas about why water is a very precious resource in the world and a potential source of conflict.
2] I can predict solubility of salts in water using the solubility rules.
3] I can interpret solubility curves.
4] I can plan and carry out an investigation into differences between hard and soft water e.g. using soap solution, boiling water or evaporation.
5] I can explain using chemical reactions where hardness, both temporary and permanent, and limescale come from.
6] I can describe the risks and benefits of hard water to include issues of health and economics e.g. the need of calcium by the body, clogging of hot water pipes and lime scale on an electric heating element.
7] I can explain why water softening is important in hard water areas e.g. refer to local scenario.
8] I can assess the effectiveness of different methods for removing water hardness e.g. ion exchange resin, boiling water and addition of washing soda.
9] I can describe and evaluate desalination techniques that can be used to create demineralised water from sea water e.g. limited to distillation and reverse osmosis.
10] I can explain how salt is produced in Malta from sea water and in other countries from rock salt.
11] I can explain that sea water contains dissolved charged ions that form a giant ionic structure on evaporation e.g. limited to the structure of sodium chloride.
12] I can use the properties of ionic compounds to explain how they behave e.g. in terms of solubility, mpts/bpts and electrical conductivity in different states.
13] I can identify which elements form positive ions and which form negative ions and where these are found in the periodic table.
14] I can draw dot-cross diagrams to represent ionic bonding e.g. limited to binary compounds excluding transition metals.
15] I can devise the formulae of ionic compounds from the charge on the ions.
16] I can use indicators to distinguish between acidic, alkaline and neutral solutions e.g. using litmus, universal indicator, phenolphthalein and methyl orange indicators.
17] I can classify a substance as acid or base or alkali and explain the difference between strong and weak acids/bases.
18] I can identify basic and amphoteric oxides.
19] I can represent what happens during reactions of acids using chemical equations and ionic equations e.g. between acids and bases/alkalis, acids and carbonates/ hydrogen carbonates, acids and fairly reactive metals, acids and sulfites.
20] I can represent what happens during the reaction of an alkali with an ammonium salt using chemical and ionic equations.
21] I can apply these acid-base concepts to the real world e.g. in terms of solutions to environmental issues such as acid rain or neutralisation of acid soils.
22] I can describe a suitable method to make and obtain a pure dry sample of a soluble/insoluble salt from different starting materials e.g. metal with acid, carbonate with acid, base with acid, alkali with acid
and precipitation reactions
23] I can describe and compare what happens chemically when electricity is applied to solid/molten ionic compounds and covalent substances.
24] I can describe and explain what happens chemically when electricity is applied to solutions of salts e.g. electrolysis of acidified water, electrolysis of copper(II) sulfate solution using inert and copper electrodes and electrolysis of dilute and concentrated sodium chloride solution.
25] I can describe electrolysis using half equations.
26] I can name the different groups/set of the periodic table e.g. such as alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, halogens and noble gases.
27] I can describe properties of halogens e.g. state at room temperature and colours of halogens; test for chlorine; sublimation of iodine.
28] I can describe common uses of halogens e.g. bleaching and antibacterial action of chlorine in water, antiseptic properties of iodine.
29] I can describe the extraction of iodine and bromine from seawater e.g. limited to displacement reactions of aqueous solution.
30] I can investigate displacement reactions of halogen/halide mixtures to construct a reactivity series of non-metals e.g. halogens limited to chlorine, bromine and iodine.
31] I can describe trends in reactivity in group 7 of the periodic table. 
32] I can describe physical and chemical  properties of group 1 metals (Li, Na, K) in the periodic table e.g. mpt/bpt, hardness and reactions of metals with water and oxygen to form a simple oxide.
33] I can describe trends in reactivity in group 1 of the periodic table.
34] I can compare trends in reactivity found in groups 1 and 7 and use atomic structures to explain the variation of reactivity within a group.
35] I can translate the reactions described in this theme into balanced chemical and ionic equations.

Learning Area Outcome: I can translate the reactions into balanced chemical equations.

Subject Focus: Materials from the Earth - The Land                                                                                                                             Learn how many products and materials essential to our lives or important for our economy are obtained from finite resources present on Earth. If these resources are used up they may no longer be available whereas if we recycle these materials we can continue to benefit from them.

1] I can describe rocks present in Malta and the Earth processes involved in their creation e.g. limestone, a sedimentary rock.
2] I can describe the use of limestone in building and other industries e.g. manufacture of quicklime, slaked lime, cement and mortar, iron, concrete, as an aggregate in road construction.
3] I can plan and carry out an investigation into materials used to construct buildings and use my findings to explain why their properties make them appropriate building materials e.g. limestone, concrete, wood, steel, aluminium.
4] I can debate the economic and environmental impact of the search for open quarrying of stone.
5] I can identify metals that are extracted from certain minerals found in rocks e.g. copper from malachite, iron from haematite and aluminium from bauxite as well as the very few metals found as elements in the ground e.g. gold and platinum.
6] I can deduce metals’ position in the reactivity series from their reactions e.g. with water/steam, hydrochloric acid and displacement reactions and relate it to the ease of corrosion and extraction.
7] I can use the reactivity series of metals to predict the best method of metal extraction – reduction with carbon or electrolysis.
8] I can describe the essential chemical reactions in the extraction of aluminium from bauxite; in the blast furnace for the production of iron.
9] I can describe the extraction of metals from their ores in terms of redox reactions. e.g. that is in terms of loss or gain of oxygen, electrons and change in oxidation numbers.
10] I can describe typical properties of transition elements.
11] I can describe the difference between transition and non-transition metals.
12] I can discuss and evaluate the environmental issues surrounding the extraction of metals including the positive and negative impact on people and their surroundings e.g. economics, careers, pollution.
13] I can describe the life cycle of objects we use and evaluate the best course of action when considering the finite nature of many metals e.g. reuse, recycle
14] I can translate the reactions described in this theme into balanced chemical equations.

Learning Area Outcome: I can translate the reactions into balanced chemical equations.

Subject Focus: Making New Materials - How fast? How far? How much?                                                                                             Learn that making new materials requires scientists to use chemical knowledge and explanations combined with practical skills such as taking careful and precise measurements and working safely. It is important to know how to control reactions; improve the efficiency of a chemical process and work out the amount of material to be produced. Above all scientists need to take social and ethical responsibility whilst making new materials to decrease the impact on living organisms and the environment.

1] I can explain that some materials are useful in their native state and that other materials need to be changed by chemical reaction
to be more useful.
2] I can name the changes that take place when chemical reactions happen and compare physical changes, such as changes of state, and chemical reactions.
3] I can describe the arrangement and movement of particles in the three states of matter.
4] I can use the kinetic theory to explain energy changes accompanying changes of state.
5] I can link the different energy requirements for changes of state with the nature of bonding simple treatment e.g. considering simple molecular versus giant molecular structure.
6] I can explain that when reactions happen mass is conserved.
7] I can calculate relative formula mass or relative molecular mass, of a compound from relative atomic masses.
8] I can work out percentage by mass calculations e.g. percentage by mass of an element in a compound, the value of xH2O in a hydrated compound.
9] I can calculate the formula of reacting masses from experiment and relate empirical and molecular formulae of simple substances.
10] I can predict the amount, in moles or masses, of products formed from given amounts, in moles and masses, of reactants in a reaction and vice versa.
11] I can calculate the volume and mass of gas at stp involved in a reaction.
12] I can calculate the theoretical and percentage yield of product for a given reaction.
13] I can plan and carry out investigations to measure the rate of reaction e.g. between acid and different metals; between limestone and acid; precipitation reactions such as the reaction of thiosulfate with acid.
14] I can decide on appropriate apparatus to use to measure the rate of reaction.
15] I can identify conditions that may affect the rate of a given reaction e.g. state of subdivision, temperature, catalyst, concentration and light
16] I can plan and carry out an investigation to study how the rate of reaction may be affected by different factors e.g. surface area of reactants, concentration of reactants, temperature, light, the use of a catalyst and/or pressure in gases where applicable.
17] I can plot graphs using experimental data and interpret the results.
18] I can plot graphs using experimental data and interpret the results. I can explain how these factors affect the rate of a reaction e.g. using the kinetic and collision theories for state of subdivision, concentration and temperature.
19] I can translate the reactions described in this theme into balanced chemical equations.

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