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Educators' Guide for Pedagogy and Assessment

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Learning Area: Science and Technology

Physical Science > LEVEL 8

Learning Area Outcome: ​I can use the inquiry process, skills of science and creative processes of technology to address the needs of society and design appropriate solutions to issues which are relevant to me as a citizen.

Subject Focus: Energy, Forces and motion

1] I can explain how the Periodic Table is made up of elements that differ in the number of protons and their atomic mass.
2] I can identify different symbols, of elements in the Periodic Table, usually referred to in physics.
3] I can use textbooks and the internet to research the development of the Periodic Table from John Newlads in 1863 and Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869, to modern day additions.
4] I can explain how the same element can bond to form a molecule e.g. oxygen. 
5] I can explain how different elements can bond to form compounds.
6] I can explain that mixtures are made up of elements, compounds and/or molecules that are not all chemically bonded together.
7] I can describe the particle arrangements in solids, liquids and gases and how this gives rise to their respective properties.
8] I can model the molecular structure of solids, liquids and gases and use kinetic theory to describe how changes of state e.g. melting and boiling, condensing and freezing occur.

9] I can discuss how changes of state of matter relate to the addition or removal of energy to/from the atoms or molecules of the material.  
10] I can describe the motion of particles in solids, liquids and gases in relation to temperature and how this relates to their internal energy.
11] I can discuss the different scales used for temperature and the relationship between them e.g. Celsius and Kelvin from a historical perspective.
12] I can model, through various means, how hotter objects expand due to an increase in the kinetic energy of the particles as a result of the transfer of energy.  
13] I can explain how the increase in the kinetic energy of the particles of a gas, increases the pressure of a gas, which explains how hot air balloons are filled.
14] I can describe how hot fluids are less dense than cold fluids and am able to apply this principle to relevant situations.  
15] I can explain how the expansion of liquids due to changes in temperature of the liquid is the principle behind liquid thermometers.
16] I can recognise and construct heating and cooling curves for different substances, including the different states of matter and correctly identify the melting and boiling points.
17] I can use models and analogies to demonstrate how heat is transferred by conduction in solids. 
18] I can use the movement of free electrons to explain thermal and electrical conduction in materials.  
19] I can explain how humans sweat to cool themselves down by evaporation of the sweat from the skin's surface.

20]  I can describe evaporation and condensation in terms of heat transfer.
21] I can relate the evaporation rate to the kinetic energy of the liquid particles. 
22] I can describe how convection is a method of heat transfer in fluids.
23] I can perform and describe a simple demonstration that shows convection currents in fluids.  
24] I can explain how particles diffuse/spread from high concentration to low concentration.  
25] I can use ideas of diffusion to describe how gaseous exchange occurs in a plant leaf during photosynthesis.
26] I can explain Brownian motion as the random motion of particles in fluids.
27]  I can research how Robert Brown made his discovery of Brownian motion, using pollen grains and how Albert Einstein developed his idea in the early 20th Century.

28] I can investigate how density of a material is found, by using the mass and volume of an object.

29] I can solve simple problems to find the density of materials using the relationship: density=mass/volume.
30] I can investigate how and why, objects float and sink in water and relate this to the density of an object in comparism to the density of water.

31] I can investigate ways of limiting energy costs at home and at school.
32] I can describe how heat can be transferred from hot objects by thermal radiation and that this is known as Infra red radiation which is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
33] I can investigate how the colour and type of surface affect the absorption and emission of heat.
34] I can explain that all hot objects emit heat that is transferred to the local environment and describe this as wasted energy since it is dispersed and difficult to retrieve.
35] I can explain and give examples of energy transfers in terms of inputs, usefulness and wasted outputs.

36] I can represent energy transfers graphically by using Sankey diagrams.

37] I can use Sankey diagrams to represent energy transfers.
38] I can use Sankey diagrams to determine the efficiency of household appliances using the equation: efficiency=useful output energy/total input energy.
39] I can research how and why people in different countries use various methods of heating and cooling in their homes.
40] I can investigate ways of generating energy such as waste to energy and energy recovery as in e.g. RO plants.
41] I can use the internet and textbooks to research the best methods of insulation and energy efficiency and formulate an information leaflet to help the Maltese make an informed choice about how to insulate their homes.
42] I can design, in theory and in practice, an experiment to find the specific heat capacity of various metals such as copper, brass and aluminium.
43] I can solve problems to calculate the specific heat capacity using: E=mxcxdT.
44] I can explain Newton's Third Law of Motion
45] I can describe how forces act in interaction pairs.
46] I can identify the forces acting between two objects.
47] I can represent the magnitude and direction of forces using lines and arrows.
48] I can calculate the resultant force of two or more forces acting either along a straight line or in a perpendicular line.  
49] I can explain friction as a resistive force and investigate which factors affect friction between two surfaces in contact.
50] I can explain why and how scientists need to ensure that only one variable is changed in an investigation, to generate a meaningful result.
51] I can design an experiment, in theory and in practice, to calculate the speed of a body, from measurements of distance and time.  
52] I can plot a distance time graph using the correct axes for an object travelling at a constant speed.
53] I can construct a distance time graph for a body undergoing a described journey.
54] I can find the gradient of a distance time graph, to find the constant speed of an object.
55] I can differentiate between scalar and vector quantities.  
56] I can calculate the total distance travelled using a velocity time graph, by calculating the total area under the graph.  
57] I can find the constant acceleration of an object by calculating the gradient of a velocity time graph.
58] I can use the relationship: acceleration=change in velocity/change in time.

59] I can undertake an investigation using textbooks and online resources to explain the effect of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of objects.
60] I can use the internet to compare the performance in terms of speed and range of electrical vehicles compared to conventional petrol/diesel engine cars.

61] I can explain the importance of finding alternative fuel sources due to the limited life of fossil fuels and how their combustion causes damage to the atmosphere.
62] I can compare renewable and non-renewable energy sources.

63] I can critically evaluate and interpret scientific claims about energy sources and their impact on the environment.

64] I can give a reasoned explanation about the most sustainable forms of energy generation suitable for Malta.
65] I can research how increased carbon emissions affect the atmosphere and climate and how in the long term this may lead to rising sea levels due to the melting of the polar ice caps.  

Learning Area Outcome: I am able to use evidence in formulating investigations to arrive at solutions for relevent scientific or technological issues and use my knowledge to understand issues within society and make evidence-based decisions.

Subject Focus: Electricity and electromagnetism

1] I can demonstrate static electricity by rubbing strips of perspex or polythene with a cloth and then using the charged strips to make small pieces of paper move.
2] I can explain how static electricity involves the movement of negative charges or electrons, between two materials to leave one postively charged and one negatively charged.
3] I can describe the hazards of static electricity e.g. when refuelling vehicles or when working with delicate electronic circuitry.
4] I can research how static electricity is used in industry for spray painting and the removal of harmful pollutants in chimneys.
5] I can explain how positively and negatively charged ions depend on the numbers of electrons compared to the number of protons in an atom.
6] I can investigate what materials are conductors or insulators, using a simple circuit with a cell and a lamp.
7] I can explain that conductors contain more free electrons that flow when placed in a circuit with a power supply, when compared to other materials. I can explain the difference between the direction of the flow of charges and the direction of the conventional flow of current.
8] I can build a simple circuit with a power supply, bulb and ammeter to measure the current.
9] I can explain how current is related to the rate of flow of charge, past a point in circuit. 
10] I can use the relationship: Q=It, to solve problems relating to charge, current and time.
11] I can use the correct circuit symbols to draw circuit diagrams of simple circuits.
12] I can demonstrate how a larger voltage on a variable power supply relates to a larger current or flow of electrons, in a circuit.
13] I can explain how the work done by a power supply is transferred into other forms of energy in components in a circuit when a current flows.
14] I can use the relationship: E=V/Q, to solve problems based on energy, voltage, or potential difference and charge.
15] I can design and build a simple circuit with a power supply, lamp, resistor, ammeter, voltmeter and switch.
16] I can use an analogy to model how charge flows in a circuit.
17] I can discuss how the rate of energy transfer in an electrical component is related to the voltage across the component and the current flowing through it.
18] I can use the relationship: P=IV, to solve problems concerning two variables.
19] I can use and manipultae the relationships: V=E/Q, P=IV and Q=Ixt, to show that: E=Pxt.
20] I can design and carry out an experiment to measure the resistance of a fixed resistor using current and voltage measurements.
21] I can adjust the potential difference across a fixed resistor to collect voltage and current measurements.
22] I can plot a straight line graph using voltage and current data for a fixed resistor.
23] I can use the current voltage graph for an ohmic conductor to find the resistance of the conductor.
24] I can describe how the collisions between free charges and ions in a conductor is the cause of resistance.
25] I can use Ohm's Law: V=IR, to solve problems when given two variables.
26] I can use resistors connected in series in a circuit to demonstrate how the total resistance increases in the circuit.
27] I can use an analogy to model how resistors in series increase the total resistance, since more work is done to move the charges through all the resistors in series.
28] I can use resistors connected in parallel in a circuit, to demonstrate how the total resistance decreases in the circuit.
29] I can explain how there are more pathways for charges to flow in a parallel arrangement of resistors when the resistance decreases.
30] I can demonstrate what happens to the current and voltage in a circuit when cells are arranged in series.
31] I can compare and contrast the properties of AC and DC currents and use an oscilloscope to demonstrate the difference.
32] I can interpret V-I graphs for different components e.g. fixed resistor, light bulb, thermistor to describe the resistance of the components and how it varies with voltage.
33] I can explain and model how houses, schools and work places can be electrically wired.

34] I can research information about how to make homes, schools and workplaces more energy efficient. I can use this to write a letter to my school to suggest methods to increase energy efficiency in the school building.
35] I can explain correct electrical safety measures used at home.
36] I can describe the safety features used in electrical appliances including fuses, trip switches and residual current circuit breakers (RCCB).
37] I can explain how electricity companies generate regular bills for electricity used at home, by measuring the amount of electrical units used.
38] I can explain what the term kilowatt hour (kWh) means.
39] I can calculate the cost of using electricity using the equation: cost=Number of units used x cost per unit.

40] I can demonstrate the effects of the magnetic field around a current carrying conductor, using plotting compasses.
41] I can make my own magnets using iron nails and a permanent magnet.

42] I can explain how a compass works in terms of the Earth's magnetic field.

Learning Area Outcome: I can use my knowledge and understanding of science and technology in considering issues, including ethical ones relevant to myself as a citizen, such as environmental sustainability and health.

Subject Focus: Radiation for communication and health

1] I can identify the component radiations which make up the electromagnetic spectrum.
2] I can represent the wavelegths and frequencies of electromagnetic radiation in standard form.
3] I can research in textbooks and online, to be able to describe how different types of electromagnetic radiation are used for communication.
4] I can use appropriate equipment and plan an investigation to measure the critical angle when modelling total internal reflection.
5] I can explain how light and infra red radiation may be used in fibre optic communications.
6] I can explain the benefits of fibre optics in broadband communications compared to older dial up connections.
7] I can compare and contrast the features of a model of the human eye and a camera.
8] I can research how the technology for cameras has progressed since the late nineteenth century to today e.g. the availability of many mobile technologies containing CCD cameras.
9] I can explain how the absorption of microwaves by the water in foods, forms the basis of operation for the microwave oven and how the increase in energy is transferred through the food by conduction.
10] I can describe how microwave ovens are designed to absorb stray microwaves to protect the users.
11] I can discuss how radiowaves and microwaves are used for long distance and global communications.
12] I can explain that microwaves are used to communicate with satellites since they are not absorbed by the earth's atmosphere.
13] I can model how the ionosphere acts as a mirror for radio waves to enable their use in global communications.
14] I can use data from scientific studies to investigate the claims made by opposing groups about the use of microwave radiation in mobile phones and formulate an argument, for or against, the use of microwaves.
15] I can compare the features of analogue and digital signals.
16] I can research how signals are transmitted in analogue and digital formats.
17] I can discuss the benefits of digital signals, how they are stored and how they form sounds and images.
18] I can demonstrate, how the intensity of a signal decreases the further away a receiver is from the trasmitting source.
19] I can describe how the earth's atmosphere transmits some electromagnetic radiation from the Sun through to the earth's surface.
20] I can use scientific data related to the levels of carbon dioxide to formulate an argument about global warming.
21] I can argue, for or against, the use of carbon fuels in relation to their benefits and harmful effects.

Learning Area Outcome: I know how to learn, update my knowledge and apply my understanding so I will be a lifelong learner, building my knowledge of issues in science and technology to make evidence-based decisions.

Subject Focus: Earth and the Universe

1] I can describe how the earth is one of the 8 planets in our solar system.
2] I can use textbooks and the internet to find information e.g. size, mass, size of acceleration due to gravity about all the planets in our solar system.
3] I can model the structure of the earth e.g. core, mantle and crust using different materials e.g. modelling clay.
4] I can use textbooks and the internet to explain that the map of the world has not always looked as it currently does.
5] I can use Wegener's theory of continental drift to show what the map of the world might have looked like at different stages in the earth's history.
6] I can explain how similar fossils and rock layers, as well as the shape of continents, are evidence of Wegener's theory of continental drift.
7] I can predict what might happen to the map of the earth in the future based on continental drift and forecasts of changing sea levels.
8] I can explain that sea floors spread at the rate of a few centimetres per year and how this is related to convection processes moving the mantle, due to the heat from the Earth's core.
9] I can describe how geologic features such as mountains and volcanoes are usually found on the edge of tectonic plates.
10] I can discuss how earthquakes are caused by the movement of tectonic plates relative to one another.
11] I can use the internet to investigate how scientists use data from seismic events to explore the structure of the earth.
12] I can use information from news sites and other internet sites to discuss how tsunamis are caused by seismic events such as earthquakes happening in open seas.
13] I can model the mechanical waves produced by earthquakes using a slinky.
14] I can use appropriate computer software to demonstrate the features of P (primary) waves and S (secondary) waves that are produced by earthquakes.
15] I can describe that P waves can travel through liquids and solids, but S waves can only travel through solids.
16] I can use the internet to investigate how the islands of Malta were formed.
17] I can model and describe how the sun, earth and moon move, in relation to one another and how this is the cause of solar and lunar eclipses on the Earth.
18] I can use the model of the sun, earth and moon to demonstrate the phases of the moon. 
19] I can explain how the tides are caused due to the gravitational pull of the moon.
20] I can discover how Isaac Newton was the first person to explain how the moon caused the tides.
21] I can explain how waves are due to the heating effects of the sun and convectional currents that cause wind.
22] I can investigate using different methods how the particles of water waves move up and down and use this to explain how waves are a transfer of energy that does not cause matter to be transferred.
23] I can interpret diagrams of waves in terms of their amplitude, wavelength and frequency.
24] I can use the wave equation: wavespeed=wavelength x frequency.
25] I can recall that the speed of light is 300,000km/s which is equivalent to 3x10^8 m/s in standard form
26] I can use a calculator to determine wavelengths and frequencies of different electromagnetic radiations concerning one variable e.g. wavelength or frequency.

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