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Educators' Guide for Pedagogy and Assessment

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Learning Area: Science and Technology

Materials Science > LEVEL 9

Learning Area Outcome: I can translate the reactions into balanced chemical equations.

Subject Focus: Materials from the Earth - The Sea                                                                                                                         Learn about the importance of the sea which occupies more than 70% of the earth’s surface. Water is a universal solvent and the sea is a rich source of minerals and many other useful chemicals. Water is an important medium for many chemical reactions.

1] I can identify particular ions present in solutions by safely carrying out appropriate tests

  • identification of Na+, K+ ions by flame tests;

  • aqueous sodium hydroxide for Mg2+ Ca2+; NH4+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Al3+, Pb2+;

  • Tests to distinguish between Ca2+ and Mg2+: Pb2+ and Al3+ ;

  • simple test-tube reactions for Cl-, Br- I-;  CO32- SO32-and SO42- ;

  • NO3- by reduction with aluminium and alkali (no redox equation for this test).

2] I can devise experiments to identify the constituent ions in solids e.g. limescale from kettles and boilers.
3] I can use chromatography to identify the components of a coloured mixture e.g. paper chromatography.
4] I can calculate concentrations given the mass of solute dissolved in a particular volume of solution.  
5] I can prepare a standard solution e.g. sodium carbonate.
6] I can conduct a titration to calculate the concentration of a given acid/alkali e.g. of acids: hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, nitric acid, ethanoic acid; and of alkali: sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and sodium carbonate.
7] I can calculate the concentration/volume of a solution taking part in a reaction.

Learning Area Outcome: I can translate the reactions into balanced chemical equations.

Subject Focus: Making New Materials - How fast? How far? How much?                                                                                             Learn that making new materials requires scientists to use chemical knowledge and explanations combined with practical skills such as taking careful and precise measurements and working safely. It is important to know how to control reactions; improve the efficiency of a chemical process and work out the amount of material to be produced. Above all scientists need to take social and ethical responsibility whilst making new materials to decrease the impact on living organisms and the environment.

1] I can classify reactions e.g. as redox, displacement, acid-base, combustion, thermal decomposition.
2] I can describe how the products of reactions can be useful and how chemists are able to design suitable reactions for a given outcome.
3] I can describe some reversible changes e.g. changes of state; hydration of copper (ll) sulfate; thermal dissociation of ammonium chloride.
4] I can describe how some chemical reactions in closed conditions do not go to completion but end up at an equilibrium position. 
5] I can explain the dynamic nature of the equilibrium and use the appropriate symbol to denote it.
6] I can use Le Chatelier’s principle to explain how equilibria are changed by changing conditions for reactions e.g. temperature, concentration, pressure where appropriate.
7] I can use Le Chatelier’s principle to explain how equilibria are changed by changing conditions for reactions. I can apply this idea to industrial processes e.g. such as the Haber process and explain how the yield is affected by both the rate of the reaction and the position of equilibrium.
8] I can evaluate needs for chemical products e.g. fertiliser from the Haber process and discuss the environmental issues surrounding production and use. 

Learning Area Outcome: I can translate the reactions into balanced chemical equations.

Subject Focus: Carbon compounds from the Earth - Meeting our energy needs                                                                                 Evaluate the use of carbon-containing energy sources; production and use of new materials and their environmental impact. Investigate the energy changes accompanying chemical or physical processes.

1] I can evaluate the importance of crude oil as a source of energy for transport and production of electricity as well as a feedstock for chemical production.
2] I can present an argument demonstrating that crude oil is a crucial raw material and that control of crude oil in the world is a possible source of conflict.
3] I can evaluate the risks and benefits of the transport and storage of fuels to an island and the use of crude oil as a finite fuel.

4] I can describe how crude oil is separated by fractional distillation and how the fractions produced may be used.
5] I can explain why carbon is a special element that can form a great number of different compounds and that many of these are found in nature and/or made synthetically.
6] I can use the terms homologous series, empirical formula, structural formula, molecular formula, general formula and functional group for homologous series e.g. alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, carboxylic acids.
7] I can name and draw structures of simple organic molecules e.g. limited to the first 4 straight chain members of the homologous series of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols and carboxylic acids.
8] I can identify and model how alkanes and alkenes can be obtained from the cracking of long chain alkanes.
9] I can describe and compare the intramolecular bonding (covalent) and intermolecular forces e.g. referred to as weak forces of attraction in alkanes and use these to explain the trends in properties of alkanes e.g. such as boiling points and melting points.
10] I can describe the main chemical reactions of alkanes e.g. cracking, combustion and halogenation -limited to monosubstitution.
11] I can link the saturated nature of alkanes to their lack of reactivity and to substitution reactions.
12] I can translate the reactions of alkanes into balanced chemical equations.
13] I can describe the combustion reaction and explain that energy is produced from the reaction.
14] I can plan and carry out an investigation into the amount of energy released by different fuels and estimate the heats of combustion e.g. alcohols.
15] I can construct energy level diagrams using bond energies to explain how combustion reactions of fuels are exothermic.
16] I can explain how both physical and chemical changes are accompanied by energy changes and that these processes may be exothermic or endothermic e.g. change of state, precipitation, neutralisation, solution.
17] I can compare exothermic reactions e.g. combustion and endothermic reactions e.g. photosynthesis and remember that energy is conserved.
18] I can describe reactions of alkenes e.g. bromination, hydration, hydrogenation, polymerisation by which useful products from crude oil can be obtained. 
19] I can link reactivity of alkenes and their addition reactions to unsaturation.
20] I can model the production of plastics from alkenes and other unsaturated compounds by polymerisation e.g. limited to polyethene, PTFE and PVC.
21] I can translate the reactions of alkenes into balanced chemical equations.
22] I can describe the problems of high sulfur content in crude oil and the importance of the process of desulfurisation.
23] I can describe how the use of fuels contributes to problems such as pollution and global warming and interpret data on these issues.

24] I can describe how certain organic substances, other than fuels, can contribute to environmental problems e.g. non-biodegradable plastics; the on-going effect of CFCs on ozone depletion and their replacement.
25] I can explain how combustion of fuels liberates particulates, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere.
26] I can plan and carry out a debate about the personal use of cars and other transport vs public transport.

27] I can explain how alcohol can be produced through fermentation and hydration of alkenes and can debate about the advantages and disadvantages of these two methods.
28] I can describe some important uses of ethanol e.g. solvent, fuel, alcoholic drinks.
29] I can describe how ethanol can be oxidised to ethanoic acid e.g. using acidified potassium dichromate.
30] I can explain how the conversion of wine into vinegar involves the aerial oxidation of ethanol to ethanoic acid.

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