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Educators' Guide for Pedagogy and Assessment

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Learning Area: Science and Technology

Life Science > LEVEL 9

Learning Area Outcome: I know how to learn, update my knowledge and apply my understanding so I will be a lifelong learner, building a knowledge of issues in science and technology and thus making evidence-based decisions.

Subject Focus: Functions of Life Part 2: Maintaining Balance and Responding to the Environment

1] I can distinguish between the structures and functions of a sensory, motor and interneuron.
2] I can attribute the flow of electrical impulse along a neurone to the movement of free moving charged particles or ions. Details of the mechanism of impulse transmission are NOT required
3] I can explain the role of neurotransmitters in synaptic transmission as the release of a chemical messenger to fire an impulse in the relay/motor neurones.
4] I can distinguish between central and peripheral nervous systems.
5] I can explain the basic functions of the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla in the human brain.
6] I can link together the functions of a receptor, sensory, inter-and motor neuron.
7] I can explain what a reflex action is and its survival value. 
8] I can label a simple diagram of a reflex arc.
9] I can explain the responses of the nervous system as arising directly or indirectly from stimuli detected by sensory receptors such as those found in the skin.
10] I can distinguish between nervous and endocrine control of the body.
11] I can explain that the nervous and hormonal systems can sometimes work together e.g. adrenaline works in conjunction with the autonomic nervous system during times of flight or fight.
12] I can use the effect of antidiuretic hormone on the nephrons e.g. homeostasis.
13] I can explain reflexes as the basis of control in simple animals and survival in advanced vertebrates. 

Learning Area Outcome: I can use my knowledge and understanding of science and technology in considering issues, including ethical ones relevant to myself as a citizen, such as environmental sustainability and health. I can use the inquiry process and skills of science and creative processes of technology, to address the needs of society and design appropriate solutions to relevant issues to me as a citizen. I have an understanding of the sustainable use of resources, including wildlife and how these are relevant to Malta. ​

Subject Focus: Functions of Life Part 3: Promoting Future Generations

1] I can distinguish between sexual and asexual modes of reproduction.
2] I can distinguish between different forms of asexual reproduction across kingdoms; binary fission, budding, asexual spores, vegetative propagation.
3] I can deduce the need to copy genetic material before cell division. 
4] I can distinguish between gametes and somatic cells.
5] I can distinguish between mitosis and meiosis.
6] I can distinguish between the challenges faced by flowering and non-flowering plants to disperse their reproductive structures, e.g. spores, pollen, seeds and link this with the adaptations of flowering plants to survival.
7] I can explain the process of germination as the generation of a plant from a seed.  
8] I can design an experiment to investigate the importance of oxygen, water, and a suitable temperature for germination.
9] I can identify the function of the basic parts of a flower.
10] I can describe pollination, fertilisation, seed and fruit formation in angiosperms. 
11] I can deduce the method of seed dispersal from the fruit/seed structure. 
12] I can identify and explain the function of the basic parts of the male and female reproductive system.
13] I can link the male and female secondary sexual characteristics to the hormones that trigger their development.
14] I can describe the menstrual cycle as controlled by follicle stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, oestrogen and progesterone. 
15] I can describe copulation, fertilisation, implantation, foetal development, birth and parental care, e.g. breastfeeding, in human reproduction. 
16] I can justify the requirements of nutrients especially folic acid, iron, calcium and vitamin D for healthy foetal development.
17] I can compare the structure and functions of the placenta with the gas and nutrient exchange surfaces of the lungs and ileum respectively.
18] I can assess "Family Planning Methods" which include natural and artificial methods of birth control in terms of their effectiveness in increasing the probability of, or preventing conception, as well as preventing transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. 
19] I can define stem cells as being unspecialised units of a multicellular organism, which in isolation, can produce a replica of the whole organism.
20] I can list the advantages and disadvantages of cloning an organism. 
21] I can identify the genetic material as a code describing the characteristics of an organism.
22] I can identify deoxyribonucleic acid as the molecule carrying genetic information in most living organisms.
23] I can identify genetic variation arising from mutations as being the basis for natural selection which produces evolutionary change.
24] I can explain the advantage of genetic diversity for species' survival. 
25] I can distinguish between DNA, allele, gene, chromosome and genome.
26] I can distinguish and give examples of diploid and haploid cells in the human body.
27] I can link the occurence of conditions such as Down's syndrome, haemophilia, thalassemia and cancer to changes in DNA or chromosomes.
28] I can explain how many mutagens can lead to the onset of uncontrolled cell division as in cancer.
29] I can distinguish between homozygous and heterozygous genotypes.
30] I can distinguish between a genotype and a corresponding phenotype.
31] I can use a Punnet square or genetic diagram to describe and calculate probabilities of inheritance in a monohybrid cross, including sex determination.
32] I can determine the sex and presence of major chromosomal mutations, e.g. trisomy 21, from a karyotype.
33] I can analyse a family tree to find the probability of different genotypes and phenotypes in future generations.
34] I can list common examples of genetic engineered crops, e.g. GM cold resistant strawberries or sweetcorn and manufactured biological molecules e.g. insulin.
35] I can give an overview of insulin production by genetically modified E.coli. as a process involving the use of restriction enzymes to cut samples of DNA and linking vector DNA to host DNA to produce of recombinant DNA.
36] I can use objective criteria, e.g. the results from independent research to assess the implications of GMO usage for human and animal consumption.

Subject Focus: Life Relationships

1] I can define what a disease is and am aware that there are different types of diseases e.g. infectious, hereditary, degenerative - which can also be hereditary but can be caused by an unhealthy lifestyle e.g.type II diabetes.
2] I can give examples of a viral disease, e.g. Tobaco mosaic virus, a bacterial disease, e.g. Streprococcus causing sore throat and a fungal disease, e.g. Athlete’s foot Tinea.
3] I can distinguish between antibiotics and vaccination as being different measures against specific pathogens.
4] I can link the effects of pasteurisation to the safety of using milk products.
5] I can relate the standard symptoms of common ailments and causes e.g. fever induced by infection, or heat exhaustion.
6] I understand the polluting effect of some materials due to their chemical properties e.g. carbon dioxide/ monoxide and gases that produce acid rain.
7] I can predict and debate the effects of air pollution e.g. greenhouse effect caused by carbon dioxide, ozone layer depletion caused by CFCs; land pollution e.g. solid waste, urbanisation and water pollution e.g. eutrophication and oil spillages, on species populations, diversity and their habitat. 
8] I can describe how living things can be used to mitigate air pollution, e.g. afforestation, carbon capture.
9] I can link the changes in the earth's climate to challenges faced by agriculture such as desertification, flooding and droughts.
10] I can distinguish between chemical pesticides both persistent and non-persistent and biological pest control.
11] I can relate the presence of detritivorese.g. earthworms and nematodes, and saprotrophs such as fungi and bacteria, with nutrient recycling in the soil.
12] I can link photosynthesis, consumption, respiration and combustion within the carbon cycle.
13] I can link nitrogen fixation, nitrification, assimilation and denitrification together within the nitrogen cycle.

14] I can distinguish between the effects of organic and inorganic fertilisers on the environment.

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