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Unit: 2 


Learning Outcome: LO 1. I know how body systems work.

K-1. I can identify the following key organs in the human body.
  • Key organs: heart; lungs; stomach; intestines
K-2. I can name the main function of these key organs.
C-1. I can outline the structure of these organ systems in the human body.
  • Key systems: cardiovascular; respiratory; digestive.

  • the cardiovascular system
○ the structure of the cardiovascular system, i.e.:
– heart - ventricles, left and right atrium, aorta
– veins - size, diameter
– arteries - size, diameter, pressure
○ the function of the cardiovascular system, i.e.:
– circulation of blood around the body, oxygenation and deoxygenation (e.g. arteries are the blood vessels carrying oxygenated blood away from the heart and veins carry de-oxygenated blood to the heart)
    • the respiratory system
○ the structure of the respiratory system, i.e.:
– trachea, i.e.:
• tube of bone - cartilage and ligaments, connects nose and mouth to lungs
    – lungs, i.e.:
• cone shaped
• right bigger than left
   – alveoli, i.e.:
• within lungs
• microscopic sacs bunched together
○ the function of the respiratory system, i.e.:
– inhale, i.e.:
• sucking in air from the atmosphere
• diaphragm expanding
• air going into the lungs
• breathing in oxygen
– exhale, i.e.:
• diaphragm relaxes and ribcage moves inwards and downwards
• breathing out carbon dioxide
• the digestive system1
○ the structure of the digestive system, i.e.:
– stomach, i.e.:
• expanding sac structure
• muscular walls
– oesophagus, i.e.:
• length
• extends to the stomach
• moves food down to the stomach
– intestines, i.e.:
• small and large
○ the function of the digestive system, i.e.:
– digestion, i.e.:
• breaks down food
• absorption of molecules (minerals/water) into the blood
• waste removal from the body

Learning Outcome: LO 2. Be able to interpret data obtained from measuring body rates with reference to the functioning of healthy body systems

K-3. I can name the ways of measuring function in these 3 body systems:
ways of measuring function in the:
○cardiovascular system, i.e.:
– pulse rates
 ○respiratory system, i.e.:
– breathing rates
○digestive system, i.e.:
– BMI.
K-4. State the normal reading of these measurements in an adult.
C-2. Indicate why a person’s pulse rate and breathing rate vary with exercise while BMI changes with height.
A-1. Measure and record a person’s pulse, breathing rate before and after exercise and BMI.
• how to measure pulse rate before and after activity (e.g. beats per minute, average pulse rates, raising pulse rate during activity)       
• how to measure breathing rate of an individual before and after activity
• how to calculate BMI (e.g. average BMI’s, measure height and weight input onto BMI chart)

Learning Outcome: LO 3. Know the needs and life factors which affect different life stages

K-5. Identify the life stages that a person goes through a life-time.
  • Life stage: Babies and toddlers (0-3years); Children (4-11 years); Adolescents (12 – 18year); Adults (19-65 years); Elderly (65 years onwards).
K-6. Outline own physical, intellectual, emotional and social health needs
Different Needs:-

  • physical health needs: food; water; fresh air; exercise; medical care; safe environment; warmth; shelter; hygiene

  • intellectual

  • Emotional and social health needs: love/emotional support; sense of belonging; independence; stimulation; self-esteem; social interaction

K-7. List the different life factors that affect the health and well-being of individuals.
Factors: illness; disability; housing; poverty; unemployment; pollution; environment; lifestyle; smoking; drug use; alcohol use; being overweight; exercise; diet
LO 4. Understand health and safety procedures.
K-8.  Identify the hazards that can be found in a room.
  • Hazards: e.g. broken toys and equipment, incorrect storage of chemicals, causes of fire, loose wiring, slippery floors, sharp objects, loose furnishings, electrical appliances
C-3.  Recognise the risks that arise from these hazards.
K-9. List the precautions that one can take when taking care of service-users.
  • Precautions: short nails; pulled back hair; no jewellery; appropriate clothing; knowledge how to use equipment; cleanliness and hygiene; use of protective clothing; use of appropriate techniques; adhering to the care plan, adhering to policies and procedures and legislation.
C-4. Report how one can take care of an individual’s needs in a responsible way.
A-2. Demonstrate how to assess the scene of an accident.
how to assess the scene of an accident within health and social care settings:  
○  assess dangers to the casualty, first aider and others (e.g. fire, electricity)
○  make the area safe appropriately before commencing first aid (e.g. remove any hazards where possible that could cause danger)
○  obtain informed consent when possible (e.g. ask conscious casualty’s permission before commencing first aid procedures)
○  communicate clearly
○  seek additional support/report issues to the appropriate people
K-10. List the information that should be given to emergency services.
○ what information to give, i.e.:
– location (e.g. address including postcode)
– what has happened (e.g. heart attack, a child has fallen down stairs)
– number of casualties
– casualty’s current state (e.g. conscious, breathing, any bleeding or chest pains)
– details of the injury and how it happened.
C-5.  Identify the signs and symptoms of a range of common injuries.
A-3. Demonstrate the first aid procedures you would apply.
Signs and symptoms and the current first aid procedures:
○ conscious/unconscious and breathing/not breathing
– – if the casualty is conscious or not (e.g. conscious casualty can respond normally to sound and touch)
– severity, if the casualty is breathing or not (e.g. look for breaths)
– symptoms (e.g. none responsive, rapid shallow/shallow breaths, no sign of breathing)
– the correct sequence of steps (e.g. check for response/no response, chest movement, listen for sounds, tilt the head back, lie the casualty on their side)
○ choking
–  signs & symptoms (e.g. choking, gasping for breath)
– the correct sequence of steps (e.g. 5 back slaps)
○ an asthma attack
– signs & symptoms (e.g. coughing, wheezing)
– the correct sequence of steps (e.g. sit the patient down, use inhaler, call emergency support)
○burns or scald
– possible causes (e.g. scald from boiling water, burn from fire) 
– severity (e.g. minor/major burn/scald)
– signs & symptoms
– the correct sequence of steps (e.g. place under cold water for at least 10 minutes)
– correct sequence of steps (dependant on severity e.g. dress minor wound, apply pressure to major wound to prevent loss of blood)
– signs & symptoms (e.g. fast, weak pulse, low blood pressure, dizziness, shallow breathing)
– correct sequence of steps (e.g. physiological shock e.g. lay person on their back and raise their legs, anaphylactic shock e.g. if having trouble breathing sit them up)

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